Why Y’all Are Wrong on Leadership and Ethics: #sorrynotsorry

aristotle

Every time there is a scandal in business or ethics we hear the same script: It’s a Leadership issue! (Person in question failed a Leadership test….) It’s an issue of Personal Morality ! (Person in question has moral flaws and/or failed to demonstrate Personal Morality i.e. Moral Purity….)

This is usually followed by hand-wringing of two types:

A – society is failing to develop Moral Character and Purity (Kids today! Socrates lament…) B- there are always a few bad apples, but the barrel is fine so we can all relax.

Several experiences in recent months have highlighted something that I think about often. Since I teach both military ethics (working with civilian and Army ROTC students) and business ethics (who are business majors in a required philosophy class for the School of Business) –  and that is the relationship between Leadership and Ethics.

Here is the conventional narrative: We need to (using Leadership Theory, Management Theory, Organizational Theory or some other theoretical construct from the Social Sciences – especially psychology and sociology and/or Business) develop curriculum or training on good Leadership, on Strategic Thought and related areas and practices and if we do so, ethics kinda takes care of itself.  This is not to say that these fields and these approaches do not recognize the possibility that one can be a ‘good’ (effective) leader and be also unethical  (note I did not use the term immoral here…I will return to that point in a few moments), but they tend to think it is not very likely, or the exception to the rule.  But why?

These approaches tend to view ‘ethics’ really as a matter of the personal morality of the character of the individual leader, or maybe how they carry out their role of leader within some idea of best leadership practices for their community.  So the ‘unethical’ leader will really be an immoral individual and this cannot be accounted for or addressed by leadership or management theories – you have to try your best to chose and hope for moral people who will then become ethical leaders.

[A word about moral and ethical and their use here. The first day of any of my courses involves making an important distinction between moral – what individuals, groups or societies think of as right and wrong – and ethical, which is higher order reflection upon these or analysis about what it means to say something is moral, what moral claims or language means or are used and how moral systems or claims are given justification.  These terms are often used interchangeably and this contributes to the general confusion and problems that I am highlighting in this discussion. Words matter.]

What is the problem with this view?  One take is Dale Wilson’s good piece in The Strategy Bridge about ethical fading and decay Wilson; this viewpoint seems to be supported by studies about the ethical cultures of companies in business and reports in the military like Lying to Ourselves Lying.  Many of these reports locate the problem as either one of personal morality (and responsibility) or a failure of leadership.  We see a similar dynamic around the round of examination in the military post Vietnam and Abu Gharib.

I think there is some merit in these analyses; they certainly are part of the story, because something important is missing here.  In professional ethics, ethics is not about personal morality alone, and in fact personal morality as the only ethical guide can be highly problematic because the ethical problems faced are faced in the context of systems and structures that go beyond the individual and on which the individual has limited impact upon and control over.  Being ethical in this frame is about understanding actions and policies within the context of ethical systems and communities – in the social context and within a context of service or obligation to society.

If this is going to be successful it requires tools of ethical reflection, analysis which has to include thinking about ethics and ethical questions and problems in a systematic and critical way. It is not enough to  know My Lai and Enron where wrong – but why?  They were not solely the result of bad choices by Lt Calley and Ken Lay, which is one conventional way of dealing with these case studies.  What could they have done, and made everything turn out differently? Except that Calley and Lay were not the only ones making individual choices in those contexts, and those actions would not have happened without certain assumptions, choices and systematic ways of thinking on the part of many other individuals and groups involved.

It takes a village to be ethical, and it takes a village to produce ethical failures. But so much of our discussion is focused on personal morality, individual responsibility and then we wonder why ethical failures are a regular feature of military and business endeavors?  Because we are ignoring really important parts of the picture and the way in which individuals are part of ethical and unethical communities, systems and thinking and the ways in which that impacts their actions.  Joanne Cuilla (author of The Ethics of Leadership Book) has done some important and pioneering work here and it merits sustained and important attention by leadership theorists, practioners, military and business ethicists. She fuses ethical theory and ethical traditions of discourse (include Aristotle, Kant, Mill and others) with many of the traditional questions, theories and frameworks of thinking about and practice of leadership.

To this end, I will be devoting the last couple of weeks (where my students present and lead class based upon their research and reading) to this topic of Leadership and Ethics. Because one ought to practice what one preaches.

Military Ethics – PHIL 224 Reading List and Schedule

Since some of you asked,

Required Texts:

Plato: Laches  via Internet Classics Archives classics.mit.edu/Plato/laches.html

Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics (any edition with side pagination)

Epictetus: The Handbook  via Internet Classics Archives classics.mit.edu/Epictetus/epicench.html

Immanuel Kant: Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals  (any edition with side pagination)

John Stuart Mill: Utilitarianism (any edition)

Stephen Coleman: Military Ethics: An Introduction with Case Studies (ISBN 9780199846290)

George Lucas Jr., : Ethics and Cyber Warfare (ISBN 9780190276522)

Other readings via Sakai ‘Resources’

 Recommended Texts:

            Jostein Gaarder: Sophie’s World. (NY: Berkeley Books, 1994)

Frederick Copleston: A History of Philosophy. (This comes in several volumes arranged chronologically and generally available in the library)

Julian Baggini: The Pig that Wants to be Eaten: 100 Experiments for the Armchair Philosopher ISBN 0452287448  (Some fun topics to think about for papers!)

While there are various resources available online that might be helpful please heed the following caveats (which also apply to non-online secondary sources):

1) Just because it is on the internet (or in a text) does not mean that the content is accurate – check your sources and trust your critical capacities,

2) Any sources you might find are someone else’s interpretation of the text which you should never substitute for your own reading and interpretation since they might very well be WRONG, and

3) Relying on other sources will not help YOU develop your own reading, critical thinking and analysis skills (which you will need to successfully write your papers), nor will it tell you what your own perspective is (which you will also need to write your papers and participate in class.)

4) You are graded in this class on your own ideas, philosophical skills, and output.  In so far as reading other people may help with this, fine.  In so far as reading other people and sources becomes a crutch preventing you from doing this on your own, not cool.

5)  YOU CAN DO THIS ON YOUR OWN!!!

Class Schedule:  (readings maybe subject to change, but I will consult the class)  All assignments are due at the beginning of class on the day in question, all written assignments to be handed in are in bold italics and must be typed, double spaced with word count turned in via the indicated location.

 

January 3: Intro; What is Ethics?  Why Military Ethics?

Virtue  and the Warrior

January 4: Quiz on syllabus; Prelude Paper (follow instructions on the prompt on Sakai under Assignments); read Plato’s Laches

Reading Question: (These are questions to help you direct your own reading and indicate issues that we will discuss in class)

What is ethics? What ethical views do you bring to this class?  How did you arrive at them? What is courage?  Is there only one definition of courage? Why is this question an important one in this book?

January 5: CRP #1 due; read Aristotle Book I – III (to 1114b15) and Coleman Chapter 3

Reading Question:  Why is Aristotle writing this book?   What is Aristotle’s conception of virtue? What are the connections between these 2 sections?  What is virtue for the warrior/soldier?

January 6: read Aristotle Books VI-X;  Case (handout), TBA on Core Values in the Military (Sakai)

Reading Question: How does Aristotle’s view of reasoning (prudence) compare to Plato’s?  What does friendship have to do with ethics? Why is pleasure not the same as happiness? What might Aristotle say?  Why?  What do you think? Why?

Stoicism

January 9: CRP #2 due; read  Epictetus The Enchiridion (The Handbook) , Stoicism readings including Nancy Sherman selections (Sakai) and Coleman Chapter 6.

Reading Question: What is the Stoic approach to morality?  How do they view emotion? What is your view of the Stoic approach?  How would you make your case?

Reason and Principles

January 10: read Kant Section I and Tim O’Brien “How to Tell a True War Story” (on Sakai)

Reading Question: What is ‘good will”? Why is it important? Why is duty so important to Kant?

January 11: CRP #3 due; read Kant Section II and Kant’s “Essay on Perpetual Peace” (Sakai)

Reading Question: Why must Reason be the source of ethics? What does Kant mean by “Reason”? Why is there only one categorical imperative?   Does killing in war pass the CI?

January 12: read Mill Chapters 1 and 2 + “The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas” (on Sakai)

Reading Question: How does Mill define Utilitarianism?

January 13: CRP #4 due; read Mill Chapters 3-5

Reading Question: What is Mill’s positive argument for utilitarianism? What is the connection between utility and justice?

January 16: No class (holiday)

Just War Tradition and Challenges

January 17:  read Coleman Chapter 4 and 5,  Aquinas, “Is it always sinful to wage war?” (on Sakai), Bush Doctrine “President Bush’s Graduation Speech at West Point” (on Sakai)

Reading Question: Under what circumstances, if any, is war moral?  What does it mean to say that war is ‘moral’?  Using the JW Principles, would you argue that the intervention against ISIL is just[1]?  How would you make your case?  Does it really matter? Why/Why not?   What is your view of the morality of pre-emptive war?  What about military intervention on Humanitarian Grounds?

Rules and Conduct of War, Conventional and Otherwise

January 18: read Coleman Chapter 7 -9, Shannon French “Why Warriors Need a Code” (on Sakai)

Reading Question: What do you think of the notion of having rules in war? Should the Principle of Discrimination be maintained in current warfare?  How? What should happen if soldiers violate the rules of war?  Is it really fair to punish them?  How do asymmetric contexts change these considerations.

Asymmetric War, Insurgency and Terrorism

January 19: CRP #5 read Coleman Chapter 10 and 11,  Michael Baur, “What is Distinctive about Terrorism…?” (Sakai)

Reading Question: What is terrorism?  How is it different than other phenomenon?  Is it war? Or something different? Are there times when terrorism can be morally justified? How should attacked groups or nations respond to terrorism?  Should terrorism be viewed as an act of war or a crime?

Draft Process and Writing Philosophy Papers

January 20: FIRST DRAFTS POLICY PAPER DUE – Please bring 1 hard copy to turn in and 1 copy for your PC partner!

January 23: PEER CRITIQUE DUE, Class Discussion Leader Groups as assigned ; read Lucas Chapters 1-3

War by Other Means

January 24: CRP #6 due; Class Discussion Leader Groups as assigned; read Lucas Chapters 4-7.

Reading Question:   What are the ethical issues involved with these technologies and their uses in war?  Do we have an ethical obligation to use them if they reduce risk to our combatants?  Is there a minimum level of risk that should be expected in war?

January 25, 26, 27:  No class; writing and meeting with Case Narrative Groups; I am available via email.

January 30:  film in class “Battle of Algiers”

January 31: Case Study Narratives due in class (Topic:  TBA); Postlude Paper due NLT 5pm via Sakai, FINAL POLICY paper due NLT 11:30 am via Sakai, Course Evaluations in class.

Reading Question: What might each of the philosophers have to say about this case?   Why?  How would they make their case?

 

Acute or Chronic: Moral Dilemmas in War

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Recently I was writing a book review on a new book or moral injury and, as is my practice while writing, I posted the following quote for discussion,

“They learn to kill, but nothing here or in their formal training prepares them for the acute moral dilemmas they will face in war.” (David Woods, What Have We Done: The Moral Injury of Our Longest Wars. p. 55)

As usual,  an energetic and at times, heated discussion ensued. There were lots of diverse views and interesting questions representing concerns ranging from masculinity, mindfulness, whether ethics and ethical reflection has any place in war and sharing of a variety of war experiences. It was all fascinating, but one question caught me up short, “…acute or chronic moral dilemmas?”  This is an incredibly smart question and I think gets to a critical piece of the moral injury discussion that does not get enough attention and warrants further sustained discussion and reflection. (Hint!)

Most of the moral injury discourse and research focuses around the idea of an acute injury or trauma that is experienced in the process of warfare: the solider kills a child soldier, non-combatants are collateral damage and/or killed accidentally, there is a betrayal in the chain of command, one is sexually assaulted by a comrade, one of your own people is killed in action or seriously injured.  It all of these cases there is guilt, a sense of responsibility and that the action or event is at odds with one’s own morals or the moral code of the community. One does something that ‘isn’t right’ even if it was ordered or necessary in the larger context of the ROE and strategy of the war.

As a teacher and scholar of military ethics, I tend to focus on cases or examples of these kinds of acute moral problems (My Lai, targeting child soldiers etc) that I think my cadets will encounter in warfare and therefore, need to ‘rehearse’ (see the Stoics for more on this concept)  or think through the ethical implications of before hand. For my civilian students, these acute dilemmas push in important ways against our moral intuitions and ethical theories and are critical to thinking through the ethical justification for war and how it ought to be conducted. This is the paradigm of military ethics (and I would argue philosophical ethics more generally) and also informs education and training, as well as our thinking about things like moral injury.

I do not wish to downplay the importance of these kinds of events, cases and their impacts on individuals, especially those to whom they happen and are impacted by them. But I do wonder if there is a piece that we are missing: the chronic and ongoing moral dilemmas that happen day in and day out, and which may have cumulative impacts in the same way that chronic pain does.  Taken alone, none of these dilemmas alone would cause an injury or trauma in the moment but over time, might they take a toll as serious, if not more so, than acute moral dilemmas?

Think about the cycle of mostly boredom, with moments of sheer terror – those moments not being predictable nor scheduled. Being keyed up to go into action, to potentially kill and try to avoid being killed, but that action not materializing. The constant tension of not knowing for certain who is friend or foe, who is a threat and who can be trusted. Wanting to help, contribute and see progress, only to see whatever gains erased either soon after or on your next tour through.The cycle of injury, deprivation, illness, heat and cold while few civilians at home seem to have any knowledge or interest in what is happening?  The bureaucracy and rules that may seem at odds with the strategic ends and aims of the war or with the tactical reality on the ground.

All of these things have moral implications for the individual and the military community; what is the cumulative impact of these sustained and chronic moral dilemmas? How do we educate and train, how do we ‘rehearse’ for the kinds of moral injury that result from these on-going dilemmas?  Does the paradigm of moral injury even fit these kinds of dilemmas? Of do need another concept like ‘moral erosion’ ‘moral exhaustion’? And how do you deal with that before, during and after warfare?

Warrior, Citizen Solider or Guardian: Thoughts after a kerfuffle

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So as I was traveling last week, my friend and fellow gin imbiber wrote this https://angrystaffofficer.com/2016/12/14/stop-calling-us-warriors/

And as he warned, it created quite the stir, a regular Diva sized kerfuffle.  There was some fabulous and mostly civil discussion, there were good points and questions raised and also some (ahem!) name calling and other types of discourse that would have resulted in a failing grade in my philosophy classes. The point is this piece raised hackles, which tells you the Angry Staff Officer is onto something. The discussion about the warrior ethos in the military goes to the heart of how military and veteran think of themselves, how society looks at them and how we are to honor service in an authentic way in an age when many civilians have no idea what they are honoring, a fact which angers and frustrates many in the military community.

It was awesome. As a philosopher I wanted to wade it, but I had a plane to catch and a Thing to do which required energy and focus. So I come late to this, but I have thoughts.  And some of you won’t be happy, but that makes for good discussion.

In my book (which is crazy expensive, but e-book on sale!) https://www.routledge.com/The-Warrior-Military-Ethics-and-Contemporary-Warfare-Achilles-Goes-Asymmetrical/Kaurin/p/book/9781409465362 I take up the issue of the warrior ethos in the military and ask to what degree it still fits the kinds of asymmetric missions that the military is increasingly tasked with. One commenter in the discussion last week asked an important question: If the warrior mindset helps someone do what they need to do in Fallujah, why do you care?

I do care. I am a philosopher and an ethicist, and how we talk, what terms we use matter. Which I why I liked what my Friend in Gin was doing, even if I don’t necessary agree with everything he said (though FTR he is mostly right!).  This discussion is important because the terms we use circumscribe the ethical parameters of what we do. Some decry “its just semantics” as if words don’t matter; for philosophers definitions are the foundations of action, knowledge, reality and Truth. If we think the military is made up of warriors, that is one set of ethical choices; if we think they are citizen soldiers, another set of choices and if we think (as I argued in Chapter 7 we should) in terms of a Guardian ethos, we get a different ethical focus.

So I ask you to think about these three terms: Warrior, Citizen-Soldier, Guardian.  How do you define these terms? Ask some hard questions and think about what the Mission is. What it really is, not what you want it to be, but the lived experience and reality of contemporary warfare.

I’ll start. Here are my thoughts on these 3 terms. There is more in my book and we will discuss I am sure!

Warrior. I think in the archetype of Achilles here, for whom being a warrior isn’t just something he does, but rather is existential – Achilles is a warrior. He cannot be other. I would argue the same is true of Patton. A warrior is a member of a specially set aside (with rituals that attend this) class or caste who is trained in killing and combat, usually in the defense of their society and who will engage against other warriors. They are trained, consecrated religiously often, send out to kill, destroy and win and then return to some kind of atonement and re-integration process so that they can be once again a member of their society. (See Joseph Campbell’s Hero cycle in Hero With a Thousand Faces)  There is a clear separation and dedicated task for this group, oriented towards combat and killing as primary. This generates, in my view, the following order of ethical priority: 1) victory in physical terms, 2) obligations to ones brothers and sisters in arms and 3) to protection of the society.   Individual and group prowess, courage and honors against the enemy are often prized and to be rewarded, should the warrior be successful. (See Achilles beef with Agamemnon over his war prize.)  We can ask too, what role glory plays here….I am not sure it is central, but seems connected to honor so Angry Staff Officer may have a point.

Citizen Soldier. In contrast to Achilles, I think Hector fills this role. The Citizen Soldier serves as a integrated member of society, not as a member of a class apart. There is often a professed reluctance (looked down upon by the warrior) to use violence, but who will use it as a last resort. The soldier views this as a role, job or task to be taken up out of obligation to his/her fellow citizens, not as an existential mode. Hector fights as he must, but he would rather be home with his wife and son, as a citizen. Because of this framing, the ethical demands here are different; there are ethical rules and limits proscribed by the society and the soldier is always tethered to this; the warrior is more autonomous and accountable to his brothers and sisters in arms, only to the society upon return.

Guardian. In contrast to these two categories, my book prefers (and I think I still agree with this) the idea of the Guardian, which I am borrowing to a certain extent (though not completely) from Plato’s Republic.  The Guardian could still be viewed as a separate class with specific training and a specific vocation or role within society, but they are servants of society and subject to its constraints in certain ways that relate to their role as protector and upholder of the Common Good. For Guardians, violence is merely one of many means that might be used to achieve their ends, and does not define them as a group or class; violence is not integral to their existential identity in the same way it is for warriors. (Which by the way in part explains the kerfuffle and ensuing feels, to question the basis of an identity is tricky and dangerous business!) In addition, the idea of Guardian brings with it the ethical frame of protecting the vulnerable (non-combatants, victims of injustice) and the ethical limit of protection in the name of Justice.

So I think the question is: What is the ethical priority? How does professionalism (especially Military Professionalism) play into these priorities and help us think about what the Mission of the military is and ought to be? In general, while I see the intuitive, historic and existential appeal of the Warrior ethos, I think it is too limiting for contemporary warfare. But y’all will tell me how and why I am wrong! 🙂

 

 

 

Hacksaw Ridge – Thoughts from one of my very sharp students!

Below are some thoughts that one of my students in my class sent me (unsolicited by the way! Aren’t those the best?!) on Hacksaw Ridge.  They were so interesting, I thought you should read them!

 

November 26, 2016

 

Hacksaw Ridge thoughts

 

Last night we went to Hacksaw Ridge, a movie about a combat medic who was a conscientious objector in WWII.

My main issue with the film is the aggressive “Othering” of the Japanese. I understand that, for the story line of the noble hero overcoming evil, the other side must personify evil… but I’m not convinced that that is entirely helpful.

Part of the importance of going to see the film was working to close the military-civilian gap. The soldiers in the film clearly hated the “Japs;” but in what seems like a vain effort to balance out the hate the film-makers included a scene where our hero gives a Japanese soldier a bandage, who in return does not give away their position. However, two scenes ultimately other the Japanese irrevocably: the hero’s nightmare when they sneak up on and kill he and his Battle; the other right before the Japanese surrender. The music alone sounds as if the battle is as inconsequential as a high school football game. It is victorious and triumphant, lacking any dissonant notes to highlight the actual horror of the battle. No longer a desperate few on an impossible ridge, the American soldiers are now a righteous force on a crusade against Evil—squashing the Evil (Japanese soldiers) right and left with ease.

The only reason for this turnaround being that God has sided with the Americans for the Sabbath-day prayers and heroic/miraculous actions of the medic. To reinforce the spirituality of the defeat, the Japanese commander is shown committing ritual suicide—having failed his ancestors (or did his spirituality lose to the American god?).

But if the point of going to see this film was to close the military-civilian gap, then I think we failed. On the one hand, maybe it is just helpful to go see blood and gore and machine gun fire; to be made to hate the enemy as the soldiers might—to have our own switches flipped.

On the other, is it ever helpful to learn to hate an enemy? I would argue no, on the “appeal to authority” Star Wars argument: fear leads to anger, anger to hate, and hate to suffering. The cycle is apparent in our history which is punctuated by times of fear, Othering, hate, and finally war. This film unabashedly depicts a battle between Good and Evil with countless subversive messages (“Japs” and rats both use tunnels and are sneaky. Rats also feed on the dead and are the objects of blatant disgust.)

Perhaps learning to hate and fear an enemy—to flip a switch—can narrow the gap. I don’t know. However, I hope that the answer to healing for our soldiers and our society is closer to acknowledgment and forgiveness than that.

 

Peace,

Hannah

Obedience and Duty in Choppy Seas: A Reflection for my Military Friends

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So a festive week, yes? Aside from my son’s broken toe and the attendant drama, I mean. In the aftermath of the election results, I have had and seen many interesting discussions about the duty to serve, from military personnel alike. Some have expressed the view that nothing has changed; military personnel serve the American people and have served under many POTUS’s – even ones they disagree with.  Others have expressed grave concern about whether they can, in good conscience, serve a POTUS who seems to advocate policies they find at odds with the values of the US military and their own personal values.

Out of these discussions came a request for me, as a civilian military ethicist, to weigh in on questions of obedience and ethics. As a trained philosopher, I will do two things, cite other philosophers and ask a bunch of annoying questions.  There is much to think about and many of these decisions, as all ethical decisions, are a matter for individual reflection and action. What a philosopher can do is frame the debate, question assumptions, guide reflections and occasionally make an argument (subject to rebuttal!)

Let’s start with philosopher and ethicist, Peter Singer, a well-known utilitarian and animal rights activist, who recently argued that there may be an obligation to serve the new administration, if it is possible that such service can influence the direction of policy and/or reduce harm of whatever policies emerge. Singer

Neutrality and Professionalism

How do these considerations apply in the case of the military? The obvious starting point here is Samuel Huntingdon who argues that, except in very extreme circumstances, questions of disobedience to the civilian authorities do not arise.  There is a very strong presumption in favor of obedience, he insists, as a part of military professionalism and that includes the right of the civilians to pursue what the military thinks of as bad policy. (Soldier and State, p. 73) This is the conventional view that the military serves the American people and the POTUS is the representative of their will.  (For a somewhat opposing view on the idea that civilian authorities have a right to be wrong, see James Dubrik’s recent book Just War Theory Reconsidered in which he lays out the ethical responsibilities of War Waging for senior military officials.)

On the conventional view, the change of power (which has begun) is routine, and it is irrelevant whether or not the military agrees with the political views of the POTUS. Some did not agree with those of Bill Clinton on Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell, nor of George W. Bush on the 2003 Iraq war and served faithfully and well anyway.  On this view, the military (especially the officer corps) is supposed to be politically neutral in the execution of their office (which does not mean one does not have person political views, but those are to be a private matter.)  Advocates of this view (Neutrality, let’s call it) would claim this is why the military is a trusted institution and the politicization of the military (especially the office corps) leads to bad things, like coups.

So no problem, right? You salute and do job which allows and even requires disobedience in the unlikely event of a “manifestly illegal or immoral order.” The military will maintain their values and military professionalism regardless of who the Commander in Chief happens to be.  If your personal conscience does not allow this, then you ought to resign.

Supreme Emergency Conditions?

Others want to claim that the situation is not all the same as the conventional view characterization above.  They claim the POTUS Elect is not a ‘normal’ politician and this situation is extraordinary, using some of these points:

  • Numerous analogies to Hitler or other authoritarian leaders
  • Even if #1 is not true, this POTUS will increase the likelihood of being asked to commit war crimes, enter into an unjust war, reverse gender and sexual orientation integration or generally engage in policies that are not in the national interest (Russia and Syria are of particular concern, but also China)
  • The POTUS does not have respect for the military or its members, as evidenced by comments in the course of the campaign.

Let’s assume for the sake of the argument (because that’s what philosophers do!) that at least one of the above has merit and based upon the evidence of the campaign will pursue policies that are at odds with the values of the US Constitution, International Law and military professionalism. (I would point out as a philosopher we have a classical epistemic problem here: this is all conjecture. We just do not know with any certainty what will happen.) It’s also important to note here that this is not a question of whether the situation can violate one’s personal values, but the values of the profession of which one is a member.

What should one do? Should one stay as Singer suggests or leave? If one leaves, should it be in a public protest way or quietly without giving reasons?  On one hand, we have the model of the protest of Siegfried Sassoon in World War I, who publicly protested the waging of the war and on the other hand, we have the Wehrmacht model where many German soldiers stayed and eventually (one might argue) were co-opted into Hitler’s plans and became complicit, unable to influence his policies to any significant degree.

 The Nature of the Military Profession

To answer this, we need to look at military professionalism in more detail. What exactly does it entail, other than what Huntingdon says?

  • There is the Oath that service members take to uphold and defend the Constitution, protect the country and to engage in reasonable obedience and loyalty, but that loyalty is not to the POTUS as a person (as an office) and it is to the American people, the institutions, laws and values of the Nation.
  • It includes a commitment to military values like integrity, courage, loyalty, sacrifice and leadership.
  • It also includes a commitment to a system of civilian control over the military as a basic part of the democratic system. This last point, as Dubrik points out, does have some complexities, but the basic principle is important.

At this point, I think it is important to note (as I do to my military ethics students) that moral purity is not included anywhere in this scheme.  These are values, not guarantees, as the military enterprise is fraught with difficult moral decisions.  I recognize that this is a controversial claim to some – as the moral injury debate has highlighted – but I do think the contract with the military involves physical, moral and psychological risk. I think the question becomes how much of those risks is it reasonable to ask of our military?

Here are some ways to think about the choices and I think there are different choices for Enlisted, Senior NCO/Junior Officer, mid-career officers and senior (Flag and General) officers. In general, I think that we can and should ask more moral risk taking from those with more power and responsibility since their actions can and do have more impact.

Enlisted – Do you trust your immediate leaders to uphold the values of military professionalism under pressure?

Senior NCO’s and Junior Officers – What best serves the people that you lead and are responsible for? Will you be able to stay and be effective and protect and serve them?  Will you be able to remain loyal to the values that are part of military professionalism?

Mid-career officers – the same as above with a bit more emphasis on your role in the institution, especially in providing guidance and advice up the chain of command.  Will you be able and willing to give frank, even critical assessments if that serves?

Senior Officers – Can you serve and maintain the values of military professionalism, the institutions and people you are charged to serve without being co-opted into any adverse political processes? Can you be a tough and critical voice if that is necessary? Are you willing to resign, if necessary?

Of course one important issue not yet addressed (except indirectly) is the politicization of the military, especially the officer corps. There is something to the neutrality argument referenced above (under normal conditions), but I agree with Dubrik that senior officers especially have certain moral responsibilities that could cross over into the political or at least be perceived in that way.  If this is not a normal transfer of power, if this is a morally different situation, then critical and principled voices will be more important and not less.

There is a level of vulnerability and moral risk in which I am suggesting here and I do not wish to downplay that, but rather say that some moral risk is part of military professionalism –  noting my caveats about rank and responsibility. But there is also risk to one’s personal beliefs and moral conscience here, as well as to one’s family and friends – to which one also has ethical obligations.  As in the case of Selective Conscientious Objection (like Lt. Watada refusing to go to Iraq), conscience matters especially when expressed in public ways. Senior officers and Senior NCO’s tend to have the most potential impact relative to both their people and outside audiences, but maintaining military professionalism and good leadership within the military also has important impacts.

The Question at Hand

So one must ask: Do you think the new POTUS as Commander in Chief will have adverse impacts on the Profession of Arms and various democratic institutions? How serious is that likely impact to be? If one thinks that it is likely to be very serious or catastrophic, then I think there is an obligation to speak up, possibility resign in a public and clear way.  One must do this, however, in ways that take into account the moral obligations one has to those left behind in the military, possibly taking up other ways to serve: citizen activism, being an advisor or listening ear to those still in the military or trying to be engaged in policy from the civilian side.

If one thinks the damage is likely to be moderate and reversible, then I think there is a strong case for continuing to serve and protect the Nation and the American people. The hope is that in this scenario, one can mitigate some harm and maintain the Profession of Arms without being completely co-opted into immoral and illegal acts.  At the very least, the military can be a model of important values that some see under attack by the new political regime.

Of course this judgement of what is likely to happen is speculative. Once the Secretary of Defense and State are in place, this may be clarified, but I also expect that members of the military will be and are already looking for cues from their senior leadership about what to expect and what stance will be taken.  This is why it is particularly important for senior officers and senior NCO’s, as well as mid-level officers to think through this process, and as they feel it is appropriate and professional convey to their subordinates. I also think that faith that the American people have in the military as an institution in our society is both an asset and obligation. There is power there, but it is power held in a sacred trust and with the assumption that it will be exerted professionally and wisely.

It is clearly a time for reflection, examining assumptions and critical thinking and questioning and above all, honest and civil conversation. As I say to my students, its complicated and that’s good.

Empathy and War: An assignment

IHON 257: Experience of War

Essay #1 Assignment

Fall 2016

PURPOSE:

This assignment may seem odd when compared with the kind of paper that one usually writes for a Honors class, but part of this class is to emotively engage the experience of war.

Accordingly, in this paper I will ask you to:

1) reflect on one aspect of the experience of war (up to and including WWI),

2) articulate and analyze your own emotive responses to the experience you have focused on and

3) draw conclusions about the experience of war based upon your reflections.

 

This paper asks you to take your emotive responses as a starting point and as an object

of intellectual reflection to further reflect on the nature and the experience of war more generally.

DIRECTIONS:

            This paper should be a 2500 – 3000 word essay, which follows the appropriate conventions for form, language and citations (e.g. MLA or Chicago, which are standard in the Humanities disciplines.) While the exact formal requirements of the paper will also be, to some extent, dictated by the topic and direction you wish to take, here are some general guidelines to follow (and the order of these is important):

First, you need to carefully define and focus your topicThe most important thing here is NOT to have too broad a focus; it needs to be as concrete and specific as possible. You are looking at the experience of war in microcosm, and then using that to do analysis on a more macro level later in the paper. You should focus on the experience of war in a particular period, from a particular perspective and in light of a particular concern or issue that you want to explore in more detail.  You could use your own questions, issues and disciplinary perspectives as a starting point for coming up with your topic.  Whatever topic you choose you need to carefully define its scope and give a rationale as to why you decided to focus the assignment in that way.

Another important part of defining your topic will be coming up with a thesis (i.e. a claim regarding what you will show/discuss in this paper), which will help us follow the paper, its organization and your orientation.

Finally, I want you to commit and stay committed to your topic – even when things get difficult!

Examples: The slave experience in the Confederate side at the Battle of Vicksburg; experience of American nurses on the Western Front (France) in WWI, experience of Spartan women in period of Peloponnesian War; experience of children during the Children’s Crusade, experience of Aztec religious leaders during Cortez’ invasion etc.

Second, you will need to give some background, exegesis or outline of the relevant issues, sources or concerns that your audience would need to be aware of in order to understand your paper.

The nature of this section will be dictated by your topic and focus, but it could include historical background, an outline and discussion of the relevant experience of war.  What information does your audience need to know to understand this experience of war? (What information is superfluous?)  What did this experience of war look, feel, smell, taste, and sound like from the perspective you are looking at?  What kind of experience was it?  What does your reader need to know to engage this experience of war on a fairly deep level?

M Make sure this part of the paper does not become the whole paper; research is a means, not the end(This section should comprise ABSOLUTELY NO MORE than ½ the paper…)

Third, you need to discuss, in specific terms, your emotive reactions to this aspect of the experience of war.

What are your emotive reactions to this experience?  What in your own experiences do you think led to your reactions?  What emotional issues or ‘baggage’ do you bring to looking at this experience of war? What elements of this experience of war relate to or are at variance with your own experiences?  What tensions or connections do you see between your own experience and this experience?

Fourth, you should take a step back and give some critical analysis of your responses and use them to draw conclusions.

What conclusions we you draw about this experience of war, based upon your emotive reactions?  What do your reactions indicate about the differences between your experience and this experience of war? What do your reactions reveal about your assumptions, perspectives, experiences, commitments, biases etc in relation to warfare? What do your reactions indicate about the similarities or common elements in human experiences?

What conclusions would you draw about the experience of war in general based upon your examination of this experience of war?  Why?  What support or reasoning would you give for your insights and conclusions? (This is not simply your opinion, but your claim about the significance of this experience of war with concrete, specific support for your claims)  This is the part of the paper where I want to know what you think about the experience of war and why.

Finally, you will need a conclusion that summarizes what you have said and/or draws out the implications of your view or concern for a larger context.  What is the Big Picture?  How can you relate what you have been discussing to the larger discussion about war we have been having in this class or things addressed in the readings so far? What questions, concerns, issues or projects has this paper and the issues in this paper raised for you?  How?  Why?

GRADING CRITERIA:

            This paper will be graded on the following criteria, as well as the guidelines I have set out for all papers in this class.  (For additional information, see the Essay Guidelines handout in your syllabus.)

  • Following the directions…did you fulfill all 5 elements in the assignment?
  • How and to what extent did you seriously engage the project of examining a particular experience of war by looking at your own specific emotive responses?
  • How and to what extent did you use the emotive responses to engage in intellectual analysis of your own perspective, its sources and effect on how you see this experience of war?
  • Did you draw conclusions about the experience of war and use those conclusions as a basis for your own claims about war? How and to what extent did you give concrete, specific evidence and support for your claims?
  • Do you use your sources appropriately and give proper documentation for all ideas that are not your own?
  • Does the paper observe and reflect the standard conventions for an academic paper, including (but not limited to) grammar, syntax, voice/tone, paragraphing?
  • Did you effectively convey the nature and kind of experience of war your topic was focused around? Could the reader get a sense of what the experience was like from the inside?

Helpful Hints and Suggestions:

            Start Early!

            Topic: While you will choose your topic, I strongly suggest that you do so in consultation me so that I can make sure you have chosen something manageable for this length of paper, point you towards resources and give you ideas and suggestions on how to approach the topic. Proposals are due (no later than) October 15, 5pm via Sakai.  They should be about 250-500 words and include relevant questions that will orient your scholarship and what sources (with proper bibliographic format) you plan to look at (or have looked at thus far.) 

            Drafts: Since I have high expectations for this paper, I suggest that you submit drafts to me for comment, but that you also share your work with your classmates for comment and ideas – especially if they do not share your topicI will accept and comment on drafts until 9:55a on October 26. You may submit as many drafts as you would like up to that date and time, but after that time I will not have adequate time to respond and for you to make revisions. There will be NO rewrites after the papers have received their final grades, so make sure that you avail yourself of the draft process.  The most efficient way to do this is to send me your draft as an attachment to an email, provided you have MS Word; otherwise, please paste it into the text of the email.

  

Organization and Thesis:  You need to be well organized and have a clear and understandable point or thesis (the blunter the better) early on.  While we are using emotive responses as one resource, this is still an academic paper so your audience will want to know what your project is and why you are pursuing it; they will also want to be able to follow your line of thought without having to resort to tarot cards.  Be clear and well organized in what you say and why you are saying it!

         

Evidence: Since you will be making a point, you need to support whatever you say with evidence, reasoning, ideas and/or experience that can be applied and understood by others.  Be very careful about depending on assumptions or conventional wisdom since it is not clear if your audience will share those assumptions. (More than likely NOT!)

         

Applications and Implications: Make sure that you draw out the implications of your argument or idea for a larger context, answering the all-important question: Who Cares?

       

Think Creatively: Do not be afraid to take some risks with your ideas and arguments and take them in directions that might seem odd, wacky or unusual.  That is usually how intellectual revolutions happen! (And A papers…)  You may find that a mixed format (part standard academic paper and part some other genre) works best; consider using (at least for the second part of the paper) poetry, 1st person narrative, dialogue or some other genre that is effective at conveying a personal experience of war.  See me if you need guidance or advice on this!

Help:  If at any point in the process, you are having difficulty or simply want to bounce your ideas off me, please do so!  I am happy to work with you (as much or as little as is your preference) to help you succeed on this (or any) paper – you only have to ask!