Military Ethics – PHIL 224 Reading List and Schedule

Since some of you asked,

Required Texts:

Plato: Laches  via Internet Classics Archives classics.mit.edu/Plato/laches.html

Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics (any edition with side pagination)

Epictetus: The Handbook  via Internet Classics Archives classics.mit.edu/Epictetus/epicench.html

Immanuel Kant: Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals  (any edition with side pagination)

John Stuart Mill: Utilitarianism (any edition)

Stephen Coleman: Military Ethics: An Introduction with Case Studies (ISBN 9780199846290)

George Lucas Jr., : Ethics and Cyber Warfare (ISBN 9780190276522)

Other readings via Sakai ‘Resources’

 Recommended Texts:

            Jostein Gaarder: Sophie’s World. (NY: Berkeley Books, 1994)

Frederick Copleston: A History of Philosophy. (This comes in several volumes arranged chronologically and generally available in the library)

Julian Baggini: The Pig that Wants to be Eaten: 100 Experiments for the Armchair Philosopher ISBN 0452287448  (Some fun topics to think about for papers!)

While there are various resources available online that might be helpful please heed the following caveats (which also apply to non-online secondary sources):

1) Just because it is on the internet (or in a text) does not mean that the content is accurate – check your sources and trust your critical capacities,

2) Any sources you might find are someone else’s interpretation of the text which you should never substitute for your own reading and interpretation since they might very well be WRONG, and

3) Relying on other sources will not help YOU develop your own reading, critical thinking and analysis skills (which you will need to successfully write your papers), nor will it tell you what your own perspective is (which you will also need to write your papers and participate in class.)

4) You are graded in this class on your own ideas, philosophical skills, and output.  In so far as reading other people may help with this, fine.  In so far as reading other people and sources becomes a crutch preventing you from doing this on your own, not cool.

5)  YOU CAN DO THIS ON YOUR OWN!!!

Class Schedule:  (readings maybe subject to change, but I will consult the class)  All assignments are due at the beginning of class on the day in question, all written assignments to be handed in are in bold italics and must be typed, double spaced with word count turned in via the indicated location.

 

January 3: Intro; What is Ethics?  Why Military Ethics?

Virtue  and the Warrior

January 4: Quiz on syllabus; Prelude Paper (follow instructions on the prompt on Sakai under Assignments); read Plato’s Laches

Reading Question: (These are questions to help you direct your own reading and indicate issues that we will discuss in class)

What is ethics? What ethical views do you bring to this class?  How did you arrive at them? What is courage?  Is there only one definition of courage? Why is this question an important one in this book?

January 5: CRP #1 due; read Aristotle Book I – III (to 1114b15) and Coleman Chapter 3

Reading Question:  Why is Aristotle writing this book?   What is Aristotle’s conception of virtue? What are the connections between these 2 sections?  What is virtue for the warrior/soldier?

January 6: read Aristotle Books VI-X;  Case (handout), TBA on Core Values in the Military (Sakai)

Reading Question: How does Aristotle’s view of reasoning (prudence) compare to Plato’s?  What does friendship have to do with ethics? Why is pleasure not the same as happiness? What might Aristotle say?  Why?  What do you think? Why?

Stoicism

January 9: CRP #2 due; read  Epictetus The Enchiridion (The Handbook) , Stoicism readings including Nancy Sherman selections (Sakai) and Coleman Chapter 6.

Reading Question: What is the Stoic approach to morality?  How do they view emotion? What is your view of the Stoic approach?  How would you make your case?

Reason and Principles

January 10: read Kant Section I and Tim O’Brien “How to Tell a True War Story” (on Sakai)

Reading Question: What is ‘good will”? Why is it important? Why is duty so important to Kant?

January 11: CRP #3 due; read Kant Section II and Kant’s “Essay on Perpetual Peace” (Sakai)

Reading Question: Why must Reason be the source of ethics? What does Kant mean by “Reason”? Why is there only one categorical imperative?   Does killing in war pass the CI?

January 12: read Mill Chapters 1 and 2 + “The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas” (on Sakai)

Reading Question: How does Mill define Utilitarianism?

January 13: CRP #4 due; read Mill Chapters 3-5

Reading Question: What is Mill’s positive argument for utilitarianism? What is the connection between utility and justice?

January 16: No class (holiday)

Just War Tradition and Challenges

January 17:  read Coleman Chapter 4 and 5,  Aquinas, “Is it always sinful to wage war?” (on Sakai), Bush Doctrine “President Bush’s Graduation Speech at West Point” (on Sakai)

Reading Question: Under what circumstances, if any, is war moral?  What does it mean to say that war is ‘moral’?  Using the JW Principles, would you argue that the intervention against ISIL is just[1]?  How would you make your case?  Does it really matter? Why/Why not?   What is your view of the morality of pre-emptive war?  What about military intervention on Humanitarian Grounds?

Rules and Conduct of War, Conventional and Otherwise

January 18: read Coleman Chapter 7 -9, Shannon French “Why Warriors Need a Code” (on Sakai)

Reading Question: What do you think of the notion of having rules in war? Should the Principle of Discrimination be maintained in current warfare?  How? What should happen if soldiers violate the rules of war?  Is it really fair to punish them?  How do asymmetric contexts change these considerations.

Asymmetric War, Insurgency and Terrorism

January 19: CRP #5 read Coleman Chapter 10 and 11,  Michael Baur, “What is Distinctive about Terrorism…?” (Sakai)

Reading Question: What is terrorism?  How is it different than other phenomenon?  Is it war? Or something different? Are there times when terrorism can be morally justified? How should attacked groups or nations respond to terrorism?  Should terrorism be viewed as an act of war or a crime?

Draft Process and Writing Philosophy Papers

January 20: FIRST DRAFTS POLICY PAPER DUE – Please bring 1 hard copy to turn in and 1 copy for your PC partner!

January 23: PEER CRITIQUE DUE, Class Discussion Leader Groups as assigned ; read Lucas Chapters 1-3

War by Other Means

January 24: CRP #6 due; Class Discussion Leader Groups as assigned; read Lucas Chapters 4-7.

Reading Question:   What are the ethical issues involved with these technologies and their uses in war?  Do we have an ethical obligation to use them if they reduce risk to our combatants?  Is there a minimum level of risk that should be expected in war?

January 25, 26, 27:  No class; writing and meeting with Case Narrative Groups; I am available via email.

January 30:  film in class “Battle of Algiers”

January 31: Case Study Narratives due in class (Topic:  TBA); Postlude Paper due NLT 5pm via Sakai, FINAL POLICY paper due NLT 11:30 am via Sakai, Course Evaluations in class.

Reading Question: What might each of the philosophers have to say about this case?   Why?  How would they make their case?

 

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